Manen van Saturnus

De planeet Saturnus heeft 53 benoemde manen, en nog eens 29 die nog worden bestudeerd. Veel van de manen zijn zeer klein: 33 zijn minder dan 10 km in diameter en dertien manen zijn minder dan 50 km. Veel van de manen zijn vernoemd naar Titanen, reuzen, of minder belangrijke Griekse of Romeinse goden. Sommige manen van Saturnus zijn erg groot; de maan Titan is groter dan de planeet Mercurius.

Hypothetische manen

Twee manen zouden door verschillende astronomen zijn ontdekt, maar nooit meer zijn gezien. Beide manen zouden tussen Titan en Hyperion in draaien.

  • Chiron die in 1861 door Hermann Goldschmidt zou zijn waargenomen, maar nooit door iemand anders is waargenomen.
  • Themis werd naar verluidt in 1905 ontdekt door de astronoom William Pickering, maar nooit meer gezien. Toch werd hij tot in de jaren 1960 in talrijke almanakken en astronomieboeken opgenomen.

Bevestigde manen

De manen van Saturnus zijn hier gerangschikt per omlooptijd (of semi-major axis), van kortste naar langste. Manen die zo massief zijn dat hun oppervlak tot een sferoïde is samengevouwen zijn vetgedrukt, terwijl de onregelmatige manen met een rode, oranje en grijze achtergrond zijn aangegeven.

Key

†Met grote
ijzige manen

Titan

‡Inuit
groep


Metaalgroep

♣Norse
groep

Zeer onlangs zijn er 20 nieuwe manen op Saturnus ontdekt die nog geen naam hebben.

Bestel

Etiket

Naam

Uitspraak

Afbeelding

Diameter (km)

Massa
(×1015 kg)

Halve lange as (km)

Omlooptijd (d)

Helling

Excentriciteit

Positie

Discoveryyear

Discoverer

1

S/2009 S/2009 S 1

- —

≈ 0.3

<  0.0001

≈ 117000

≈ 0.47

≈ 0°

≈ 0

buitenring B

2009

Cassini

(maantjes)

- —

A noisy image showing a few bright dots marked by circles

0.04 tot 0.4 (Earhart)

<  0.0001

≈ 130000

≈ 0.55

≈ 0°

≈ 0

Drie 1000 km banden binnen A Ring

2006

Cassini

2

XVIII

Pan Pan

/ˈpæn/

A bright fuzzy band (rings of Saturn) is running from the left to right. In the center a bright irregularity shaped body is superimposed on its upper edge. A narrow grayish band, which is a part of the main band, partially covers the body.

28.2±2.6
(34 × 31 × 20)

4.95±0.75

133584

+0.57505

0.001°

0.000035

in Encke Division

1990

M. Showalter

3

XXXV

Daphnis Daphnis

/ˈdæfnɪs/

Two bright bands run from the left to right. In the narrow gap between them (Keeler gap), which has wavy edges, a small oblong object can be seen.

7.6±1.6
(9 × 8 × 6)

0.084±0.012

136505

+0.59408

≈ 0°

≈ 0

in Keeler Gap

2005

Cassini

4

XV

Atlas

/ˈætləs/

An irregularly shaped body is fully illuminated. The body, which looks like a cone viewed from the south pole, is elongated downward.

30.2±1.8
(41 × 35 × 19)

6.6±0.045

137670

+0.60169

0.003°

0.0012

buitenste Een Ring herder

1980

Voyager 2

5

XVI

Prometheus Prometheus

/proʊˈmiːθiəs/

An irregularly shaped oblong body is fully illuminated. It is elongated in the direction from the right to left. Its surface is covered by craters. There is valley at the top.

86.2±5.4
(136 × 79 × 59)

159.5±1.5

139380

+0.61299

0.008°

0.0022

binnenste F Ring herder

1980

Voyager 2

6

XVII

Pandora Pandora

/pænˈdɔːrə/

An irregularly shaped body is half illuminated from the bottom. The terminator runs from the left to right. The surface is covered by numerous craters.

81.4±3.0
(104 × 81 × 64)

137.1±1.9

141720

+0.62850

0.050°

0.0042

buitenste F Ring Shepherd

1980

Voyager 2

7a

XI

Epimetheus Epimetheus

/ɛpɪˈmiːθiəs/

A partially-illuminated irregular body, which has a shape remotely resembling a cube. The body's surface consists of ridges and valleys and is covered by craters.

116.2±3.6
(130 × 114 × 106)

526.6±0.6

151422

+0.69433

0.335°

0.0098

co-orbitaal met Janus

1977

J. Fountain, en S. Larson

7b

X

Janus Janus

/ˈdʒeɪnəs/

An irregular body, whose outline looks like an approximate circle in this image. It is illuminated from the bottom-left. The terminator runs from the top-left to bottom-right. The surface is covered by craters.

179.0±2.8
(203 × 185 × 153)

1897.5±0.6

151472

+0.69466

0.165°

0.0068

co-orbitaal met Epimetheus

1966

A. Dollfus

9

LIII

Aegaeon Aegaeon

/iːˈdʒiːən/

Image of Aegaeon.

≈ 0.5

≈ 0.0001

167500

+0.80812

0.001°

0.0002

G Ring maantje

2008

Cassini

10

I

Mimas †Mimas

/ˈmaɪməs/

A spherical body is half illuminated from the left. The terminator runs from the top to bottom in the vicinity of the right limb. A large crater with a central peak sits on the terminator slightly to the right and above the center of the body. It makes the body look like the Death Star. There are numerous smaller craters.

396.4±0.8
(416 × 393 × 381)

37493±31

185404

+0.942422

1.566°

0.0202

 

1789

W. Herschel

11

XXXII

Methone Methone

/mɪˈθoʊniː/

From May 2012 flyby

3.2±1.2

≈ 0.02

194440

+1.00957

0.007°

0.0001

Alkyoniden

2004

Cassini

12

XLIX

Anthe Anthe

/ˈænθiː/

1.8

≈ 0.0015

197700

+1.05089

0.1°

0.0011

Alkyoniden

2007

Cassini

13

XXXIII

Pallene Pallene

/pəˈliːniː/

In the center is Pallene, a moon of Saturn

5.0±1.2
(6 × 6 × 4)

≈ 0.05

212280

+1.15375

0.181°

0.0040

Alkyoniden

2004

Cassini

14

II

Enceladus †Enceladus

/ɛnˈsɛlədəs/

A spherical body is half illuminated from the right. The terminator runs from the top to bottom in the vicinity of the left limb. In the center and at the top there are heavily cratered areas.

504.2±0.4
(513 × 503 × 497)

108022±101

237950

+1.370218

0.010°

0.0047

Genereert de E ring

1789

W. Herschel

15

III

Tethys †Tethys

/ˈtiːθɪs/

A spherical heavily cratered body is illuminated from the bottom. The terminator runs from the left to right in the vicinity of the top limb. There is a wide curved graben running from the center of the body to the bottom. It is Ithaca Chasma.

1062±1.2
(1077 × 1057 × 1053)

617449±132

294619

+1.887802

0.168°

0.0001

 

1684

G. Cassini

15a

XIII

Telesto Telesto

/tɪˈlɛstoʊ/

24.8±0.8
(33 × 24 × 20)

≈ 9.41

294619

+1.887802

1.158°

0.000

leidende Tethys trojan

1980

B. Smith, H. Reitsema, S. Larson, en J. Fountain

15b

XIV

Calypso Calypso

/kəˈlɪpsoʊ/

An oblong reddish body is seen in this low resolution image.

21.4±1.4
(30 × 23 × 14)

≈ 6.3

294619

+1.887802

1.473°

0.000

die Tethys trojan volgen

1980

D. Pascu, P. Seidelmann, W. Baum, en D. Currie

18

IV

Dione †Dione

/daɪˈoʊniː/

A spherical body is half illuminated from the right. The terminator is running from the top to bottom slightly to the left off the center. The central part of the body is smooth and has only a few craters. A heavily cratered terrain is near the right limb. A part of a large crater is intersected by the terminator in the lower-left corner. To the left of it there is a long crack running parallel to the terminator.

1122.8±0.8
(1128 × 1123 × 1119)

1095452±168

377396

+2.736915

0.002°

0.0022

 

1684

G. Cassini

18a

XII

Helene Helene

/ˈhɛlɪniː/

An irregularly shaped body illuminated from the left. Its surface is covered by numerous impact craters.

35.2±0.8
(43 × 38 × 26)

≈ 24.46

377396

+2.736915

0.212°

0.0022

leidende Dione trojan

1980

P. Laques en J. Lecacheux

18b

XXXIV

Polydeuces Polydeuces

/pɒliˈdjuːsiːz/

A small oblong body is barely resolved in this image.

2.6±0.8
(3 × 2 × 1)

≈ 0.03

377396

+2.736915

0.177°

0.0192

die Dione trojan volgen

2004

Cassini

21

V

Rhea †Rhea

/ˈriːə/

A spherical body is almost fully illuminated. The terminator is running near the top edge. The surface is covered by numerous craters. Two partially overlapping large craters can be seen above the center. One that is younger is above and to the right from the older one.

1527.0±1.2
(1530 × 1526 × 1525)

2306518±353

527108

+4.518212

0.327°

0.001258

 

1672

G. Cassini

22

VI

Titan ♠Titan

/ˈtaɪtən/

An orange spherical body is half illuminated from the right. The terminator is running from the top to bottom slightly to the left off the center. Both limb and terminator are fuzzy due to light scattering in the atmosphere.

5149.46±0.18
(5149 × 5149 × 5150)

134520000±20000

1221930

+15.94542

0.3485°

0.0288

 

1655

C. Huygens

23

VII

Hyperion †Hyperion

/haɪˈpɪəriən/

An irregularly shaped oblong body is illuminated from the left. The terminator is near the right limb. The body is elongated in the top-bottom direction. The surface is punctured by numerous impact craters, which make it look like a sponge or cheese.

270±8
(360 × 266 × 205)

5620±50

1481010

+21.27661

0.568°

0.123006

in 4:3 resonantie met Titan

1848

W. BondG
. Bond
W. Lassell

24

VIII

Iapetus †Iapetus

/aɪˈæpɪtəs/

A walnut shaped body illuminated from the bottom-left. The terminator runs from the top to right along the top-right limb. An equatorial ridge runs from the left to right and is convex in the direction of the bottom-left. Above and below it there are dark areas. Above the upper dark area and below the lower one there are bright poles. There numerous craters. Three among them are very large: one sits on the limb at the right another is in the center above the ridge. The third is below the ridge near the left limb.

1468.6±5.6
(1491 × 1491 × 1424)

1805635±375

3560820

+79.3215

15.47°

0.028613

 

1671

G. Cassini

25

XXIV

Kiviuq ‡Kiviuq

/ˈkɪviək/

≈ 16

≈ 2.79

11294800

+448.16

49.087°

0.3288

Inuit groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

26

XXII

Ijiraq ‡Ijiraq

/ˈiːɪrɒk/

≈ 12

≈ 1.18

11355316

+451.77

50.212°

0.3161

Inuit groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

27

IX

Phoebe ♣†Phoebe

/ˈfiːbiː/

An approximately spherical heavily cratered body is illuminated from the bottom-right. The terminator runs near the left and top limbs. There is huge crater at the top, which affects the shape, and another slightly smaller at the bottom.

213.0±1.4
(219 × 217 × 204)

8292±10

12869700

−545.09

173.047°

0.156242

Noorse groep

1899

W. Pickering

28

XX

Paaliaq ‡Paaliaq

/ˈpɑːliɒk/

≈ 22

≈ 7.25

15103400

+692.98

46.151°

0.3631

Inuit groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

29

XXVII

Skathi ♣Skathi

/ˈskɒði/

≈ 8

≈ 0.35

15672500

−732.52

149.084°

0.246

Norse (Skathi) Groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

30

XXVI

Albiorix ♦Albiorix

/ˌælbiˈɒrɪks/

≈ 32

≈ 22.3

16266700

+774.58

38.042°

0.477

Gallische groep

2000

M. Holman

31

 

S/2007A ♣S/2007 S 2

- —

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

16560000

−792.96

176.68°

0.2418

Noorse groep

2007

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna, B. Marsden

32

XXXVII

Bebhionn ♦Bebhionn

/bɛˈviːn/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

17153520

+838.77

40.484°

0.333

Gallische groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

33

XXVIII

Erriapus ♦ Erriapus

/ɛriˈæpəs/

≈ 10

≈ 0.68

17236900

+844.89

38.109°

0.4724

Gallische groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

34

XLVII

Skoll ♣Skoll

/ˈskɒl/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

17473800

−862.37

155.624°

0.418

Noorse (Skathi) groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

35

XXIX

Siarnaq ‡Siarnaq

/ˈsiːɑːrnək/

≈ 40

≈ 43.5

17776600

+884.88

45.798°

0.24961

Inuit groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

36

LII

Tarqeq ‡Tarqeq

/ˈtɑːrkeɪk/

≈ 7

≈ 0.23

17910600

+894.86

49.904°

0.1081

Inuit groep

2007

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

37

 

S/2004B ♣S/2004 S 13

- —

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

18056300

−905.85

167.379°

0.261

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

38

LI

Greip ♣Greip

/ˈɡreɪp/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

18065700

−906.56

172.666°

0.3735

Noorse groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

39

XLIV

Hyrrokkin ♣Hyrrokkin

/hɪˈrɒkɪn/

≈ 8

≈ 0.35

18168300

−914.29

153.272°

0.3604

Noorse (Skathi) groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

40

L

Jarnsaxa ♣Jarnsaxa

/jɑːrnˈsæksə/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

18556900

−943.78

162.861°

0.1918

Noorse groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

41

XXI

Tarvos ♦Tarvos

/ˈtɑːrvəs/

≈ 15

≈ 2.3

18562800

+944.23

34.679°

0.5305

Gallische groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

42

XXV

Mundilfari ♣Mundilfari

/mʊndəlˈværi/

≈ 7

≈ 0.23

18725800

−956.70

169.378°

0.198

Noorse groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

43

 

S/2006 ♣S/2006 S 1

- —

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

18930200

−972.41

154.232°

0.1303

Noorse (Skathi) groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D.C. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

44

 

S/2004C ♣S/2004 S 17

- —

≈ 4

≈ 0.05

19099200

−985.45

166.881°

0.226

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

45

XXXVIII

Bergelmir ♣Bergelmir

/bɛərˈjɛlmɪər/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

19104000

−985.83

157.384°

0.152

Noorse (Skathi) groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

46

XXXI

Narvi ♣Narvi

/ˈnɑːrvi/

≈ 7

≈ 0.23

19395200

−1008.45

137.292°

0.320

Noorse (Narvi) groep

2003

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

47

XXIII

Suttungr ♣Suttungr

/ˈsʊtʊŋɡər/

≈ 7

≈ 0.23

19579000

−1022.82

174.321°

0.131

Noorse groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

48

XLIII

Hati ♣Hati

/ˈhɑːti/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

19709300

−1033.05

163.131°

0.291

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

49

 

S/2004A ♣S/2004 S 12

- —

≈ 5

≈ 0.09

19905900

−1048.54

164.042°

0.396

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

50

XL

Farbauti ♣Farbauti

/fɑːrˈbaʊti/

≈ 5

≈ 0.09

19984800

−1054.78

158.361°

0.209

Noorse (Skathi) groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

51

XXX

Thrymr ♣Thrymr

/ˈθrɪmər/

≈ 7

≈ 0.23

20278100

−1078.09

174.524°

0.453

Noorse groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

52

XXXVI

Aegir ♣Aegir

/ˈaɪ. ɪər/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

20482900

−1094.46

167.425°

0.237

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

53

 

S/2007B ♣S/2007 S 3

- —

≈ 5

≈ 0.09

20518500

≈ −1100

177.22°

0.130

Noorse groep

2007

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

54

XXXIX

Bestla ♣Bestla

/ˈbɛstlə/

≈ 7

≈ 0.23

20570000

−1101.45

147.395°

0.5145

Noorse (Narvi) groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

55

 

S/2007C ♣S/2004 S 7

- —

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

20576700

−1101.99

165.596°

0.5299

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

56

 

S/2006 ♣S/2006 S 3

- —

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

21076300

−1142.37

150.817°

0.4710

Noorse (Skathi) groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

57

XLI

Fenrir ♣Fenrir

/ˈfɛnrɪər/

≈ 4

≈ 0.05

21930644

−1212.53

162.832°

0.131

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

58

XLVIII

Surtur ♣Surtur

/ˈsɜːrtər/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

22288916

−1242.36

166.918°

0.3680

Noorse groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

59

XLV

Kari ♣Kari

/ˈkɑːri/

≈ 7

≈ 0.23

22321200

−1245.06

148.384°

0.3405

Noorse (Skathi) groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

60

XIX

Ymir ♣Ymir

/ˈɪmɪər/

≈ 18

≈ 3.97

22429673

−1254.15

172.143°

0.3349

Noorse groep

2000

B. Gladman, J. Kavelaars, et al.

61

XLVI

Loge ♣Loge

/ˈlɔɪ. eɪ/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

22984322

−1300.95

166.539°

0.1390

Noorse groep

2006

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

62

XLII

Fornjot ♣Fornjot

/ˈfɔːrnjɒt/

≈ 6

≈ 0.15

24504879

−1432.16

167.886°

0.186

Noorse groep

2004

S. Sheppard, D. Jewitt, J. Kleyna

Onbevestigde manen

De volgende objecten (waargenomen door Cassini) zijn niet bevestigd als vaste lichamen. Het is nog niet duidelijk of dit echte satellieten zijn of slechts hardnekkige klonters binnen de F-ring.

Naam

Afbeelding

Diameter (km)

Halve majeuras
(km)

Omlooptijd
(
d)

Positie

Ontdekkingsjaar

S/2004 S 6

A bright narrow band runs from the top to bottom. To the right of it in the diffuse halo the is a bright small object.

≈ 3–5

≈ 140130

+0.61801

onzekere objecten rond de F Ring

2004

S/2004 S 3/S 4

≈ 3–5

≈ 140300

≈ +0.619

2004




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